Training Notes – 03.04.2015

Elbow Strike NeonAnti-grappling!

This session was a lot of fun – we explored some ideas to help us deal with common methods involving grappling and develop some useful skills with that in mind.

We started, after the usual loosening off, with some breathwork under stress. This took the form of simple exercises done with good breathing, followed by inhaling and performing the exercises with that breath held, and exhaling before performing the exercises with empty lungs.

This kind of breathwork is useful for lots of reasons. It places greater emphasis on the quality of your breathing while exercising by giving an extreme counterpoint to effective breathing, but also it helps us deal with the very real fear inherent in not breathing. By dealing with this fear, even a little, we can help ourselves to panic less in the event that someone tries to stop us from breathing in a violent encounter. In contrast, we also appreciate much more viscerally how seriously we should take such an assault, and how quickly we need to act in order to prevent syncope: a loss of consciousness.

From there, we moved onto tension and relaxation drills: Person A tries to manipulate Person B’s spine and effect a takedown by disrupting their posture (we looked at this in detail when we trained on Red Nose Day), while Person B resists with tension. This made for a great core stability exercise! Then, instead of using tension to deal with the stimulus, we used relaxation: allowing the push to continue past us and moving to a position of advantage. Like fighting a ghost. We also did some padwork with resistance from the padholder, having to forcefully push them off us before being able to strike the pads they presented.

IMG_20150408_130057 - CopyWe focussed in on grips themselves for the next section, using grabs to the wrist, arm, clothes and throat to look at the anatomy of a grip and how to break it. We found that, as the weakest part of a grip is the gap between the thumb and fingers, what tends to work best in breaking that grip is moving what’s been grabbed in the direction of this gap, and moving the grabbing hand in the direction of the back of that hand. That’s difficult to articulate, so have a picture!

In this example, we moved the hand in the orange direction and ourselves in the blue direction (if possible – we did this up against a wall too). If there’s two hands, they just need to go in opposite directions! This is very simple to do and show, but complicated-sounding to type.

Grip Size ComparisonWe also found a simple thing to bear in mind: the wider the thing being gripped, the weaker the grip on it. Thus, a grab further up the forearm is structurally weaker than a grab to your wrist.

Grips to clothes, however, were not quite so easy to break quickly and so we used that grip to effect various biomechanical manipulations or bypassed it altogether to capitalise on the striking opportunities that the grab gave us. The difficulty in breaking these grips lies in how the material tends to wrap around the fingers into the middle of the tightly clenched fist, as the picture to the right shows. Clothes Grip GIFThus, it’s generally more efficient to use these grips to our advantage instead of focussing on them and trying to break them. Everything the attacker does presents us with opportunities – we just need to know how to look for them and what to do with them.

Once we’d worked on the anatomy and angles regarding grips and breaking them, we put this basic knowledge into practice against some of the more common assault dynamics involving grappling:

  • Grab with one hand (typically clothes/chest, or throat), followed by a strike with the other towards the face.
    • High guard, intercept and drive through with the elbow before following up with control and/or striking as necessary.
  • Grab around the throat up against the wall (either one hand, typically followed by a strike with the other, or a concerted effort to choke with both hands).
    •  Various methods of breaking the grip and using the high guard and elbows to strike while maintaining control of limbs, head and shoulders.
  • A ‘shoot for the double-leg’ takedown, involving the attacker grabbing both legs and pushing forwards and upwards with their shoulder, in an attempt to flip someone over so they land on their back or the back of their head.
    • Sprawling and turning the tables on the attacker: allowing their own movement to be their downfall (literally!).
  • To reiterate some previous points, a bear hug.
    • Sometimes it’s just as easy as standing up in the right place: using your whole body to disrupt their posture while you improve yours.
    • Sneaky strikes work wonders.

We discussed how the grabs themselves that we’re looking at are rarely the most pressing issue when it comes to the assault that’s taking place – nobody tends to just grab your clothes and leave it at that, otherwise we wouldn’t be overly bothered by it – but rather it’s the followup that we’re most concerned with. The grab to the clothes isn’t a problem, but the punch in the face following it is! The bear hug in itself isn’t much of an issue, but the other three people hitting you while your arms are pinned are! That’s why our response has to be as fast and efficient as possible – especially if the person attacking knows what they’re doing or is naturally stronger than you are.

Again, it’s worth mentioning the force continuum here: we’re not interested in sticking around once we’ve dealt with the assault and battling it out, having a wrestle (despite the fun and games between Steve and I whenever there’s the opportunity for some wrestling!) or ‘teaching the scumbag a lesson’. We’re getting to a position of advantage and doing what we need to do to escape and stay safe. That’s it. Sometimes one or two good, well-placed and well-timed strikes is all that’s needed. That’s when you didn’t manage to see it coming, evaluate the situation and talk your way out of it (or just avoid it altogether) in the first place of course. Never lose sight of the goal of your training: survival and escape.

As always, it was a pleasure to train with you all and many thanks to everyone who came. I hope you all had a very happy Easter and see you next time!

-Josh Nixon

All the details of this class are on the Public Classes page up at the top. Your first session is FREE and all are welcome to come along and take part. Every session is beginner-friendly. If anyone has any questions, don’t hesitate to get in touch.

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Training Notes – Endon – 28.03.2015

Elbow Strike NeonThis week we went old-school with a few of the classic drill formats. I think we can all agree it was an intense one!

To start off our old-school sesh, we warmed up with some joint rotation, stretching movements, etc high and low. To loosen off and get into the swing of things, we worked from pushes and strikes to develop footwork and positioning using a Systema, Taiji and Aikido-influenced methodology, and then used circular footwork and positioning (situation allowing) to deal with grabs much like elements of Baguazhang in some respects, as this nicely explained video I saw a while ago by Richard Clear shows.

Then once we were warmed up and loosened off with the softer skills we got straight to it: classic partner padwork with some solid focus on basic striking methods: jabs, crosses, rising knee strikes, low hook kicks and jab kicks.

Then a short speed drill ensued, whereby partners tested each others’ reactions by presenting pads and leaving them in random places to be hit, leaving less and less reaction time. At random times, on command, padholders would chase their partner to the end of the hall trying to score points by tapping them on the back, head or shoulders with the pads.

After that, the group all came together to drill as one:

Running the Gauntlet:

This was the main section of the session, and was a lot of fun all around as well as being a great test of endurance, willpower and combative efficacy. Each drill involved each person in the group going dealing with every other person in the group before the next person had their turn.

Gauntlet 1: People one-by-one in a line.
Everyone stood in a line, and attacked the combatant however they liked one at a time. Making their way through the line, the combatant had to reach the end. After dealing with the last person, the combatant ran away and everyone would chase them to the end of the hall.

Gauntlet 2: People one-by-one in a circle.
This was the same as the last drill, but instead of going through a convenient line, the combatant is completely surrounded by people. One at a time, these people attack however they like in a random order. Once the last person is dealt with, the combatant runs away and everyone else gives chase.

Gauntlet 3: Pads, one-by-one in a line.
The combatant has to get through a line of pad-holding partners, performing different movements (hook punches, hammer fists, etc) on each. When each section of the line has been finished with, the combatant must forcibly move their padholding partner out of the way with biomechanical manipulation in order to approach the next padholder. Once the last padholder is finished with, the combatant runs away while all of the padholders chase them, trying to tap them with their pads.

Gauntlet 4: Pads, one-by-one in a circle.
As before, this was the same as 3 but in a circle again.

Gauntlet 5: Pads and a stick, at random, in a circle.
This time the pads were presented at random by padholders in a random order, and sometimes the combatant would be attacked with a stick. Sometimes they would have multiple padholders to deal with, or a padholder and a stick-wielding partner, or multiple padholders and a stick-wielding partner. Any padholders who weren’t presenting pads walked around the combatant getting in the way.

These drills were a lot of fun, but also developed three key attributes for anyone interested in honing their self-protection skills:

  • Endurance. The ability to get very tired very quickly again … and again … and again … and still be effective.
  • Proactive positioning and situational awareness. The ability to keep as cool a head as you can when surrounded by people, prioritise targets and deal with an attack while keeping an eye on what others around you are doing. With positioning, the ability to get out of that crowd as quickly as possible and make yourself a more difficult target to overwhelm in the first place!
  • Tenacity. The cultivation of what some martial arts refer to as ‘indomitable spirit’: the mindset that does not give up and is not intimidated into submission. The will to respond, escape and survive.

As always, it was a pleasure to train with you all and many thanks to everyone who came. I hope you all have a great weekend and see you next time!

-Josh Nixon

All the details of this class are on the Public Classes page up at the top. Your first session is FREE and all are welcome to come along and take part. Every session is beginner-friendly.

Training Notes – Endon – 13.03.2015

Red Noses Focal B&WYesterday was, of course, Red Nose Day! At the time of writing this post, their website says £78,082,988! Incredible.

We couldn’t let this day go by without some form of recognition and so, while I was sitting at work thoughtfully squidging my friend Snortel the red nose, I had an idea for a rather enjoyable drill we could mark the occasion with: Red Nose matches!

So, after a few shuttle runs, shoving each other around and shoulder mobility exercise, we got to it: in pairs, everyone has a red nose on. As a test of your parrying and blocking, you have to knock each other’s red nose off! No point-keeping or anything; just a bit of fun to warm up with.

We used this however to make a very useful point.

If you keep your attacker at range 3 (about an arm’s length away) and you’re trying to control them like that, good luck. I say that because it’s incredibly difficult to protect yourself successfully while you’re there, as you usually get into a kind of standoff where you’re reacting to their strikes, throwing some of your own, and you’re too easily overwhelmable. You have to be extremely skilled to manage to parry and/or block an unrelenting attack keeping someone at that distance.

However, as we were saying the week before last, fear (or inefficient training) can lead to mis-management of this distance between yourself and the person trying to assault you. As we found with this lighthearted drill, it was much more efficient to move in to range 1-2 and control the limbs of the attacker much more closely, restricting their movement and ‘jamming’ their attempts to strike.

Takedowns! …posturepostureposture…

Yet again, you’re going to be sick of me going on about this, but posture is everything in takedowns too! We looked at a couple of concepts: spine alignment and the position of our Centre of Mass (COM).

IMG_20150314_192001IMG_20150314_192013As we saw with our partners, applying a downward force to a straight spine doesn’t really do much to their posture. A straight, neutral stance is of course very stable as your COM’s reference point (marked X on my scribbles) is right between your feet along your centre line. (Wing Chun people are nodding sagely…)

However, if the spine is misaligned, things are different. Whether it’s a sideways bend (as the right-hand scribble on an old diary’s page attempts to portray) or a move forwards or backwards, this misalignment shifts the COM away from that centre line.

IMG_20150314_200559As the point on the floor directly below a person’s COM (reference point marked x on the above scribblings) is moved in any direction away from the centre, the posture of the person is weakened and their ability to withstand downwards pressure without falling to the floor is compromised. The person’s balance is off, and you can use that to your advantage! Think of it as moving that x towards one of the compass points to the right.

Prevent their feet from taking the natural step they’ll want to take to recover from this and lo and behold: a takedown just happened!

  1. Misalign the spine.
  2. Prevent recovery.
  3. Downwards force.

Of course there’s more to it than just this, and plenty that can be done besides, but this is a basic look at takedowns. This post was going to be just brief bullet points, but then I found I was in a typing-something-up mood!

The Aftermath: Justification and Explanation

After violence occurs, you have to be able to explain what happened and justify why it did. We took a simple drill – Person A attacks Person B however they like, and Person B responds – such as you’d find in any self-protection or martial arts class. What we did then, however, marks out quality mindful self-protection training from those who pay lip-service to the Force Continuum and to justifying your Force Deployment after violence takes place.

Person A then asks questions.

‘What did you do?’

‘Well why did you do that?’

‘Did you really have to? I mean, did you have to use that much force?’

‘Why didn’t you just walk away?’

‘Was he even of sound mind? For all you know he could have been vulnerable and you just slapped him!’

‘Couldn’t you have used less force? It seemed a bit excessive.’

‘I bet that really annoyed you. I’d have been furious. I bet you really wanted to give him some then, didn’t you?’

Person B has to justify what they did – honestly, openly and mindfully. When we talk about justification, it’s important to remember that you’re not just justifying yourself legally. Socially, you might have to justify yourself to the people around you (family, friends, colleagues) who could see you as ‘violent’, or as someone who’s ‘been in a fight’. It’s now up to you to explain to them that it wasn’t a fight: you protected yourself and had to. Personally, you will likely have to justify it to yourself as well. Doubts could spring up about what you did and whether it was the right decision, whether you could have de-escalated better, etc. After the violence has ended, there can be a lot of mess to clear up before it’s all over!

This underpins everything that we learn in an Evolutionary Self-Protection session. Never forget that you have to justify and understand what you’re doing. There’s a lot more to it than chucking your partner around and bashing the pads.

Even a silly bit of fun – knocking red noses off each other – in a room full of laughter is a valuable learning and training experience with obvious progression and subtle nuances for beginners and experienced participants alike.

Train mindfully. Train efficiently. Train evolution…arily? Yep, that’ll do!

Have an awesome weekend everyone – see you next week!

-Josh Nixon All the details of this class are on the Public Classes page up at the top. Your first session is FREE and all are welcome to come along and take part. Every session is beginner-friendly.

Training Notes – Endon – 06.03.2015

IMG_20150306_174443

This week’s session was our first to be held at Endon Village Hall now that we’ve moved there from our old venue in Stockton Brook. We’ll all miss the old place – it was the focal point of the local community in many ways, and many of us have trained there for years – but we were all looking forward to training in Endon.

The new venue is excellent: a bigger hall, convenient location and overall a really great place to train.

As always, it was a pleasure to see you all again and the quality of the training was truly excellent. The skill, progress and raw natural ability I see every week is truly incredible. Very well done to everyone. Awesome effort and fantastic atmosphere.

Last week, we worked on ‘the fence’ and used it as a framework to explore footwork, positioning and posture, as well as distance management, communicative strategies, striking and surviving an armed assault.

This week, we progressed from the basic skills we looked at last time and used them in some interesting and effective ways.

  • Warmup and exercise: most of this week’s exercise was focussed on quadrupedal movement – various methods of crawling, etc on the floor – and using those movements as incredibly useful (and fun!) exercises. We looked at Kong bounds and sideways Chimpanzee crawls in particular, as well as some rolling.
  • Fence – but what then?
    • That was the focus this time: once we’ve managed the distance, what then?
    • We looked at two basic skills and two ways in which they can be used:
      • Parrying: redirecting a movement without directly opposing its force.
        • Using our hands and forearms to parry straight punches to the face.
      • Blocking: directly opposing a movement forcefully, preventing it from continuing.
        • Using our forearms and elbows to block hook punches, slaps, etc to the side of the head.
        • Finding beneficial targets and ‘attacking the attack’: stepping into the movement, intercepting it and applying an elbow to the pectoral (or shoulder) and a forearm to the bicep.
    • Economy of motion: using the fence as a starting point, the hands don’t have to move very far in order to successfully intercept an attack.
  • We looked at using the drop-step as a short, explosive movement that is useful both in intercepting an attack and in getting more mass behind a strike.
    • We also looked at pre-emptive striking (and the legality of it) and discussed some issues of the force continuum that must be considered.
  • Striking with the Knuckles:
    • Jab (your lead hand), cross (your rear hand) and hook punches.
    • Power generation:
      • The drop step
      • The preceding drop step (elastic recoil)
      • Rotational movements (incorporating elastic recoil)
      • Maintaining relaxation and mobility in the shoulders while striking
    • A progressive intensity striking drill to ensure straight, strong wrists.
  • Padwork with a ‘live’ partner:
    • Person A does pushups while Person B (wearing focus mitts) inconveniences them!
      • Distracting and annoying slaps, kicks, added resistance by pressing on Person A’s back, etc.
    • On command, Person A aggressively climbs their way up Person B while Person B tries to tread on them and kick them! This is more fun and less dangerous than it sounds, trust me…
    • Person A, standing, maintains control of Person B and moves Person B into position and strikes the pads that Person B presents at random timings and angles.
    • The pushups resume, and the drill continues…
    • This is a very enjoyable and yet exhausting drill where we accomplish a lot of things: we get very tired very quickly and do so in a situation of resistance: our partner is trying to make it difficult for us emotionally as well as physically so we learn to keep our focus on what we’re doing and avoid distractions. We learn how to get up from the floor in a dangerous situation safely and efficiently, we learn how to maintain control of an aggressive partner and we practice our striking too. We learn how to go from doing something else (in a position of disadvantage – lying down on the floor) to quickly and decisively acting on a stimulus beyond our control: the instructor shouting ‘GO!’ and our partner suddenly trying to tread on us and kick us while we get up.
  • We also looked at some of the methods employed last week and the week before against an assault with a stick, and finished off with some percussive massage – Russian style. More than just being very relaxing and beneficial for stretching out and loosening off any tension we’ve built up in training, we learn a lot about striking someone and dealing with incoming strikes too, as well as breathwork and awareness of tension and relaxation. Very useful work.

Many thanks to all who came, it was a pleasure as always, and see you all next time!

-Josh Nixon

All the details of this class are on the Public Classes page up at the top. Your first session is FREE and all are welcome to come along and take part. Every session is beginner-friendly.

Training Notes – 27.02.2015

IMG_20150214_121842This week’s session was a lot of fun – many thanks to all who attended! It was wonderful to welcome so many new people all at once and awesome to have two more experienced members return after we’d missed them for a few weeks. We really got that particular kind of atmosphere this week that you can only get when you get more in than expected.

I hope you all have a great weekend and see you next time!

For those who are new to us, when I write these I often link to associated important concepts either on Wikipedia, other websites or our own small wiki that I’m working on for our specific concepts.

Threat Awareness is worth a look, as well as Threat Evaluation and Threat Avoidance. Communicative Strategies will come into play next time when we look at distraction and pre-emptive striking, and the Force Continuum is extremely important to bear in mind.

Of course, if anyone has any questions then feel free to get in touch!

This week, we looked at:

  • Footwork, posture and positioning: the importance of good posture can’t be overstated enough. As the squats, slams and burpees will have shown you in particular, good posture is everything.
  • Use of ‘The Fence’ to manage distance proactively (Without looking aggressive!) when someone’s squaring off and invading your personal space.
    • Fear and how it can lead us towards mis-management of that space. Backing off continually isn’t always the best option.
    • Keep your hands neutral and relaxed, but ready. They’re there if you need them, that’s all.
  • Footwork and relaxed movement when pushed around a bit.
    • (Progression: the same when punched.)
    • Keeping control: proximity and ‘sticking’ to the aggressor to limit their options. Again, it’s all about positioning and posture.
  • Striking from the Fence:
    • Hammer Fist
      • Relaxed arm drill: just feeling the weight of your arm.
    • Palm Strike
      • Relaxed striking: still feeling the weight of your arm, encouraging a whiplike acceleration.

When I’m asked what our methods are based on, I often discuss things like Systema, Wing Chun, Krav Maga, Jujutsu, etc. However, when it comes down to it, it’s all just physics, biology and psychology/sociology.

The most important thing to remember in striking: simple physics.

FORCE = MASS x ACCELERATION

Through our relaxed movement, we accelerate as fast as we can in any given space because we don’t have unnecessary tension working against that movement.

Through posture and refined (trained) movement, we get as much of our body mass behind that strike as we can.

The above helps us generate as much force as we possibly can. We further refine this with beneficial positioning and striking methods to apply that force as efficiently as we can: to get maximum effect from minimum required effort. This is what we call economy of motion.

We also looked at:

  • Dealing with someone striking us with a stick: working with a useful movement we developed last week (and the week before).
    • Once you decide you need to deploy force, and you find the right moment in which to do so, you must act immediately, efficiently and decisively.
    • Close distance and use your elbows to your advantage
    • Get control and make sure it’s a strong grip you have. Anything less than your strongest is not good enough.
      • An easy way to test this grip is have your partner violently shake their arm to see if they can wrench it free with brute force. Gripping with just your hands likely won’t be enough but keeping it close and against you, gripping efficiently and using positioning and posture to your advantage (and their disadvantage) will.

All in all, we’ve worked on a lot of things here. Something that’s worth bearing in mind was expressed well by Sonny Puzikas in a great video we recently shared on Facebook: these punches, kicks and swinging weapons are just movements. They only become a strike when they make contact with their intended target. Until then, they’re just movements.

Don’t fear a movement: train to work with it. Train intelligently and you work efficiently.

Once again, many thanks to all who came and see you next week! It was a pleasure and a privilege to train with such truly excellent people.

All the details of this class are on the Public Classes page up at the top. Your first session is FREE and all are welcome to come along and take part. Every session is beginner-friendly.

Training Notes – 20.02.2015

IMAG0206.jpgAs always, this week’s class was a lot of fun! Many thanks as always to everyone who came and we hope to see everyone else again soon! The sheer skill and natural ability I saw this week was phenomenal. Everyone did exceptionally well and should be extremely proud of their progress and prowess.

Here’s some brief notes to guide your martial ponderings…

  • We started off this week’s awesomeness with a circuit of the usual kinds of calisthenics exercises: pushups, Russian twists, throwing a slam ball, passing a kickshield from hands to feet and back again while lying down, dips and burpees.
  • Thoroughly warmed up, we loosened off with some quadrupedal movement before moving onto ground mobility drills involving a variety of rolls, takedowns and padwork from different positions.
  • This week we took the drill we did last week on dealing with an attack with a stick and expanded on it with many logical progressions. Some key points to remember:
    • Once you decide you need to deploy force, and you find the right moment in which to do so, you must act immediately, efficiently and decisively.
    • Close distance and use your elbows to your advantage!
    • Get control and make sure it’s a strong grip you have. Anything less than your strongest is not good enough.
    • Act fast: strike and control.
    • You might get hit a little despite your best efforts, but there’s varying degrees of how much that’ll ruin your day. Your positioning and footwork has a lot to do with this. Train intelligently and act efficiently!
  • We also looked at some options when using a high guard against straight and hooked punches coming towards us – it’s a very versatile and efficient method of protecting yourself.
    • Regardless, we’re not about to stand there and deal with one hit at a time! Just as with the stick:
      • Close distance and gain control.
      • Striking, striking, striking…
      • Disrupt their posture and you compromise them greatly – this can be used for takedowns or truly devastating striking opportunities. Or, if possible, just a shove and your chance to run away! Remember the Force Continuum – it has to be borne in mind at all times in your training.
  • Sometimes, try as we might to avoid things getting this bad, we end up on the floor with someone trying to turn our torso from convex to concave with their feet.
    • Again, act immediately, quickly, efficiently and decisively.
    • Close distance, claw and climb your way up them. Grab whatever you find: clothes, skin, muscle, fat, hair… it doesn’t matter. Like a monkey climbing a tree. Credit to Andrew Holland (http://theselfdefenceexpert.com/) for introducing me to this very useful concept in his excellent Primal Combatives session back in 2013.
    • The closer you are to those legs, the more difficult it is for them to kick you.
    • Get up. Fast. And don’t forget that if you need to then striking can be done on the way.
    • After a tiring set of drills combining much of the aforementioned, we finished off with some percussive massage (Russian style) as a relaxation and breathwork drill.

This class is free for beginners and runs every Friday at 17:45 in Stoke-on-Trent (ST99NX). Everyone is welcome and all the details can be found here (or just click ‘Public Training’ at the top).

Training Notes – 13.02.2015

IMG_20150214_121842A quiet week this week but a good session nonetheless! A warm welcome to our newest member who did exceptionally well with the hammer fist striking we worked on! Very natural movement and stable posture all round.

  • Taking a simple exercise and making it horrible: shifting weight forwards, backwards or sideways to change the emphasis with our pushups, and holding exercises such as pushups and squats isometrically.
  • Striking we looked at: palm strikes, hammer fists and turning elbow strikes. To recap:
    • Palm strikes are relatively low-risk strikes that are easy to employ. They can generate lots of power and hit lots of nerve endings all at once, so can be quite disorienting and shocking. You can also grab on straight away once you’ve hit. They’re quick too.
    • Hammer fists are powerful and also relatively quite low-risk to the striker.
    • Elbow strikes are devastating, quite easy to employ and are very useful when close up.
  • Impact development: feeling the weight of your arm and relaxed striking movements.
  • Dealing with impact and pushes: relaxed movement, joint mobility and footwork. Angles and directions.
  • Working against armed assaults: a simple drill against a stick being swung at your head and a similar concept being applied against a very common knife attack situation: grabbing the shirt and stabbing towards the stomach with the rear hand.
    • Gaining control of the armed arm (haha) and testing how much control we have.
    • Finding opportunities to strike and get away.
    • Taking the stick and striking with it if we need to (see: Force Continuum).
  • Breathwork drill for awareness of tension and relaxation.

All of this came together into a nice training session with a clear objective in mind when dealing with the attacks we looked at: to escape (safely). We had a new student this week who took on the concepts we explored quickly and easily with very nice, natural movement. Many thanks also to Chris for providing such exemplary (devastating) striking to discuss!

I hope you all have an awesome weekend and thanks for coming. See you next week!

Details of this class can be found here.

Josh

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